Crohn’s disease can be defined as this is the chronic condition in which the parts of digestive organs are inflamed. It causes irritation in the digestive track. Different parts of the track are inflamed due to crohn’s disease. Inflammation in the digestive track can cause pain in abdomen, diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue or malnutrition. Sometimes inflammation may spread to the deeper layer of bowel and cause irritation. Crohn’s disease is a painful condition and sometimes this condition may account for life threatening situations. Crohn’s disease mostly initiates in colon and small intestine but it can happen to any part of the GIT, starting from your mouth to the anus. Crohn’s disease may affect ileum and beginning of the colon and also the thickness of the bowel wall. There is a attire need of modern research because researchers are still not sure about the cause of crohn’s disease. Treatment of any disease has advance in this decade but no better treatment is available for crohn’s disease. Crohn’s disease is the main part of IBD that is inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease is most commonly found in the age group of 20 to 30 as well as in adolescents. Also it can found in any age group.  

Sign and symptoms of Crohn’s disease:

Small and large intestine are mostly involved in getting affect with Crohn’s disease. It also found that in some individual crohn’s disease is limited to colon only that is the Fragment of large intestine. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe. In some cases sign and symptoms of crohn’s disease may grow slowly and gradually but sometimes it may trigger suddenly without any alarming. There is a remission period in this condition when you have no sign and symptoms to show. When the disease is in active phase sign and symptoms of crohn’s disease includes:

  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Cramps in abdomen
  • Fatigue
  • Some may have blood in their stool
  • Sores in mouth
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain in anus or surrounding area due to inflamation.
  • Fullness of bowel even after bowel movements

In severe cases of crohn’s disease people may experience:

  • Liver or bile duct inflammation
  • Inflammation in skin and eyes
  • Kidney stones
  • Iron deficiency that is anemia
  • Delayed growth in children
  • Delay in sexual development.
  • Ulcer can occur
  • Shortness of breath

If the diagnosis is done timely one can reduce severe complications of crohn’s disease and treatment can begin on time.

Causes of Crohn’s disease:

Authentic and true cause of Crohn’s disease is still not identified. But there are several thoughts by the researchers are present that are

  • Genetic causes, if your close family member is having then you are more likely to develop this disease.
  • When the immune system cause a attack to the digestive track, basically a trouble with immune system
  • Smoking
  • An environment factor like bacteria

Risk factors associated with Crohn’s disease.

These are some risk factors that are more likely to develop Crohn’s disease

  • Genes
  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Medications
  • World around you
  • Diet
  • Infection
  • Poisonous Food

Diagnosis of Crohn’s disease:

Doctors use different types of test to identify Crohn’s disease from Ulcerative colitis due to similar symptoms. First of all your doctor will ask about you medical history, then he will discuss about the sign and symptoms you are facing, then he will recommend you some lab tests that are:

Blood test: It includes CBC, complete blood count.

Stool sample: Sample from stool is taken to check for any Infection causing diarrhea.

Imaging tests:

MRI, CT scan is done to check the internal parts of the body. A detailed imaging is obtained through X-Ray.

Endoscopy: Doctors refer you to a specialist in this field called gastroenterologist to perform one of the following tests:

  • Balloons assisted enteroscopy.
  • Capsule endoscopy
  • Upper endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.

Treatment for Crohn’s disease.

There is no perfect cure for Crohn’s disease but treatment given below can help to improve the quality of life who is suffering from Crohn’s disease.

  • Corticosteroids: They are most effective anti-inflammatory drugs that includes:
  • Budesonide
  • Prednisone
  • Methylprednisolone

These drugs are effective for inflammation but on the other hand they have some severe side effects like skin problems, risk for infection, thinning of bone and loss of muscle.

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs: these drugs include
  • Mesalamine
  • Olsalazine
  • Sulfasalazine

These medications are only recommended in specific cases. They have side effects like stomach upset, nausea, diarrhea and rashes.

  • Immune system modifiers: They Include:
  • Azathioprine
  • Methotrexae

These drugs are only recommended for six month because they may cause serious infections and life threatening condition.

  • Antibiotics: They include:
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Metronidazole

Ciprofloxacin may cause tears and nausea. Other side effects related to these drugs are metallic taste, and nausea.

When the treatment is started, you must visit your doctor after weeks to check whether the medication is giving positive response and you have to continue your medicine until the remission phase is achieved. Once this phase happens, your doctors will prescribe you the maintenance therapy to make the symptoms at bay. If your condition is not getting better, your doctor will suggest you another stronger therapy.

Surgery:

Almost 65 percent to 75 percent people suffering from Crohn’s disease require surgery to treat this. It is recommended mostly when medications are not working on this or you might get resistant to the medications. Two common methods are used in this procedure that are Anastomosis and ileostomy.

Anastomosis: In anastomosis surgeon removes the inflamed part of the bowel. Then he join both the healthy end with each other. Once the inflamed or diseased portion is removed from the bowel, one can live a healthy and symptom free life for about years. But surgery is not the total cure for life because Crohn’s disease usually comes back where the anastomosis is done.

Ileostomy: when Crohn’s disease patient get infection in rectum, then doctors will not go for anastomosis. Ileostomy is referred in this case by this procedure your intestine is connected with the skin of torso. Opening of skin helps in collecting the waste in a special pouch.

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