Multiple sclerosis

An illness that is evolves with CNS (central nervous system). Myelin is damaged by the immune system. Myelin is a layer that protect s the nerve fibers. Basically Multiple sclerosis (MS) disabled brain and spinal cord in Central nervous system. Damage in myelin sheath causes communication problem. Communication is disturbed between brain and other parts of body. Inflammation and lesions occurs in tissues present in brain. Permanent damage to the nerves is caused by this disease. Sign and symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary from person to person because it depends upon the percent of nerve damage. Some people show symptoms with severe multiple sclerosis when they completely loss their ability to walk. This worse condition is due to complete damage of nerve fibers.

No cure is found for multiple sclerosis but treatment can slow down the number of attacks and manage symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

Sign and symptoms of multiple sclerosis:

Symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis may vary from patient to patient because it depends on the percent and location of the nerve damage. Severity and seriousness of this disease increases from one year to another, from month to other month and even day by day.

  • The most common and well known symptom of this disease is when a patient has trouble in walking and get fatigued.
  • Patient also have difficulty in speaking
  • Memory is affected
  • Loss of concentration
  • Acute or chronic pain is also associated with multiple sclerosis.
  • Loss of vision or blurred vision.
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Numbness and tingling in legs
  • Dizziness
  • Bowel and bladder disruption
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Problem in breathing
  • Seizures may occur in some cases.

What are the causes of multiple Sclerosis?

Causes of multiple sclerosis is identified that myelin sheath that protect the nerve fiber is damaged of the patient having multiple sclerosis. Researchers suggest that this damage of nerve fiber is due to the attack of immune system. And the attack of immune system is triggered by any environmental factor like any virus or toxin. When immune system attacks the nerve it leads to inflammation. And this further damaged the scar tissue a lesions. Disruption of signals from brain to other parts of the body is developed by this inflammation and scar tissue.

According to research this is suggested that multiple sclerosis is not a heredity disease but the risk is slightly high if anyone is living with the parent or sibling with multiple sclerosis. Some genes are seems to be susceptible to develop multiple sclerosis according to a new research.

Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis:

It is really hard to identify whether a patient is having multiple sclerosis because the sign ans symptoms of this disease is very similar to other health conditions. When you find any symptoms consult you doctor and discuss in detail the symptoms you experienced after examination he will suggest you to some good neurologist for an assessment because he is the specialist of your condition.

Your general practitioner might not be sure if you are having only one attack of Multiple sclerosis symptoms until you experience another attack of MS symptoms. The two separate attacks of the symptoms will confirm if you are having multiple sclerosis. MRI scan is done after the two sets of attack to diagnose multiple sclerosis.

Some tests are performed to diagnose multiple sclerosis that are:

  • MRI scan
  • Neurological examination
  • Evoked potential test
  • Lumber puncture
  • Blood tests.

Types of multiple sclerosis:

There are generally four types of multiple sclerosis that are discussed below:

  • Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)

This is the pre multiple sclerosis condition in which one attack of symptoms occurs in last 24 hours. Demyelination in central nervous system is the cause associated with these symptoms.

  • Relapsing remitting Multiple sclerosis (RRMS)

According to evaluation there are 85% of patients are of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis so this is the most common type. New and old symptom of multiple sclerosis is seen in relapsing. In this type some symptoms will disappear while some become continuous to appear and they will remain permanent.

  • Primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS)

In this type of MS Neurological functions of CNS will worsen day by day once the symptoms appear. However, only short periods of stability are seen in this case. Active and non active terms are used to describe the condition of this disease.

  • Secondary progressive Multiple sclerosis ( SPMS)

This type of multiple sclerosis worsens the patient disability. This stage comes after RRMS in many patients. Visions problems are also associated with this type.

Treatment of multiple sclerosis:

To treat multiple sclerosis there is no definite cure is available. But there are sets of treatment options that are used to minimize the symptoms of MS. Every medication suggested for multiple sclerosis is not easily available in the market and it is not also appropriate for every patient.

To slow down the progression of MS symptoms or lowering the relapsing rate in patients DMTs Disease modifying therapies are suggested. DMTs include various dosage forms like self injectable, oral medications and intravenous infusions.

Self- injectable are designed for specially RRMS patients and they include the drugs glatiramer acetate as well as beta interferons like Betaseron, Extavia, Rebif and Avonex

Oral medications are also for RRMS patients and the medications include in this is siponimod, diroximel fumerate, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumerate.

Intravenous infusions are given for RRMS includes the medication like mitoxantrone, natalizumab, alemtuzumab and ocrelizumab.

The first infusion is approved by Food and drug Administration (FDA) for the patients with PPMS and that drug is called ocrelizumab and this drug is also used to treat PPMS patients.

Ozanimod is another drug that has approved by the FDA and this is to treat CIS, SPMS and RRMS but this drug is not marketed yet due to pandemic of COVID-19.

Some doctors recommend corticosteroids like methylprednisolone to treat relapses. Acther Gel is also prescribed sometimes to treat relapses in patients. Some other treatments are also given according to the symptoms to improve the condition of a patient and improve their quality of life.